Monoclonal antibodies are produced from a single B-cell clone. They recognize certain epitopes or binding sites on an antigen. These antibodies recognize only a single antigen such a protein. These proteins have common epitopes. These antibodies are generated by using in vitro tissue-culture techniques.
Lab animals such as rats are immunized to produced these antibodies. Immunization can be done single time or multiple times with a specific antigen. Then B cell is collected from the spleen of an immunized animal. These B cells are fused with cancerous cells to enhance their proliferation and to produce hybridoma cells. These cells are grown in a specific medium. These cells continue to grow and yield antibodies and then screened for the required monoclonal antibodies. Those cultures producing the desired mAbs are harvested and purified from the medium.
Diagnostic Application: used for the detection of any targeted protein by blotting or immune fluorescence. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are also used in the detection of deep vein thrombosis, CVD, locate metastatic tumors, pregnancy kits, and immunosuppressive therapy.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) also have various therapeutic applications such as its use in cancer, drug and toxin immune conjugates, inflammatory disease and radioisotope immune conjugates.